The Existence

You know, that one you keep hearing about.

132 notes

peashooter85:

The Arctic Confederates and the last shots of the Civil War,

Ironically the last shots of the American Civil War did not occur in hot humid Deep South, or in Virginia, or the borderlands of Texas, or by violent guerrilla fighters in Missouri.  No, the last shots of the Civil War occurred far north, in the cold arctic waters of the Bering Sea near Alaska.

Great Britain made a killing building and selling ships to the Confederacy during the Civil War.  It was not a political thing, but merely good business.  British ship builders sold ships to Confederates, who used them to raid Union shipping, which caused American insurance rates for shipping to skyrocket, devastating the American shipping industry, which gave British shipping an incredible advantage in the world shipping market.  In fact British shipping would dominate for 50 years after the close of the Civil War.  Supplying Confederate raiders and privateers was good business indeed.

One such Confederate raider was the CSS Shenandoah.  Built in 1863 as the HMS Sea King, it was a steam/sail ship originally intended as a troop transport.  In 1864 the Sea King was outfitted with guns and transformed into a war cruiser.  She was transferred to the Confederate Navy where it was renamed the Shenandoah.  Under the command of Capt. James Waddell, the Shenandoah sailed past the Cape of Good Hope, across the Indian Ocean, and headed for the North Pacific.
Using Australia as a base for rest, repair, resupply, and even recruitment of sailors (yes Australians in the Confederate Navy), the Shenandoah cruised and raided the rich whaling waters of the Bering Straight, far north in Arctic between Russia and Alaska.  Whale oil was an important commodity to industry, being the main lubricant and illuminant until the invention of petrochemicals. 

From Winter to Spring of 1865 the Shenandoah sunk, captured, or ransomed  a dozen Union merchant ships and whalers. Captured goods and ships were sold at foreign ports, with each crew-member being given as share of the profits. As Spring drew nearer weird things started happening.  Crewman of captured ships would present Captain Waddell and crew newspapers or telegraph transcripts depicting unusual events, such as the capture of Richmond, the Surrender of Gen. Lee and the Army of Northern Virginia, however Capt. Waddell assumed that the war was still being fought on other fronts, such as in the deep south or by Joseph E. Johnston’s forces in the Carolinas.  He continued his attacks, raiding two dozen more ships in June (10 in the space of 7 hours), around two months after the war had ended.  On June 28th, the Shenandoah captured the whaling ship Nile, firing the last shots of the Civil War, it was now almost three months since the surrender of Gen. Lee at Appomattox.

In late June, 1865, Waddell formulated a plan to bombard San Francisco, the largest city in the West, left completely undefended as it was far away from the war (not to mention the war had ended three months ago). On August 2nd, a mere days travel away from the city, the Shenandoah was met by a British ship.  The Captain of the vessel presented Waddell with newspapers proclaiming the capture of Confederate President Jefferson Davis and the surrender of Gen. Johnston’s army, the war was officially over. 

However the crew of the Shenandoah were in a pickle.  The US government granted a full pardon for ex-Confederates, however they wanted the crew of the Shenandoah to hang as pirates, as they were raiding well after the war had ended, Confederate commerce raiders were not afforded the same protection as soldiers, and much of their crew were foreigners (Australians).  Within a few days the Shenandoah was transformed.  The Confederate ensign was removed and replaced with a false flag, her guns and gun decks removed, and she was repainted to look like a merchant ship.  The Shenandoah then sailed south, through the South Pacific and around the Cape Horn of South America to the Atlantic.  Avoiding other ships and staying off shipping lanes, she crossed the Atlantic and made her way to Britain.  The Shenandoah surrendered to the British government on Nov. 5th, 1865, becoming the last Confederates to surrender and bringing a final close to the Civil War.  The Shenandoah also has the distinction of being the only Confederate ship to circumnavigate the world.  During her 12 and a half month journey she raided 38 ships, took over a thousand seamen prisoner, and caused millions of dollars in damages.  Eventually the US Government’s stance on Confederate raiders softened, and the crew of the Shenandoah was permitted to surrender and return home.

(via peashooter85)

6,018 notes

Because the greatest part of a road trip isn’t arriving at your destination. It’s all the wild stuff that happens along the way.
Matthew Fisher on Tamed by Emma Chase (via suspend)

(via fruitcrocs)

712,205 notes

makeoutinheaven:

dunebat:

coldswarkids:

edwardspoonhands:

thelegendofkungjew:

doxian:

d-dinosaur:

rknjl:

newvagabond:

NO “TELEPHONES”. TALK TO EACH OTHER. FACE TO FACE ONLY. WRITE A LETTER. SEND A TELEGRAM TO YOUR MOM. PRETEND IT’S 1860. LIVE.

NO ‘WRITING’… TALK TO EACH OTHER. THROW A ROCK AT YOUR MOM. PRETEND IT’S 10,000 BCE.  LIVE.

URGGA. ROU GRAAURH. RUH.
<SMACKS HANDS ON WALL WITH PAINT.>

NO ‘HIGHER BRAIN FUNCTIONS’ …USE YOUR REPTILIAN BRAIN
EAT YOUR MOM’S CORPSE SHE DIED TO PROVIDE YOU WITH SUSTENANCE
PRETEND YOU HAVE JUST AROSE FROM THE SEA
SURVIVE

NO “MULTICELLULAR TRAITS”….. USE YOUR SYMBIOTIC MITOCHONDRIA
REPRODUCE ASEXUALLY, YOU’RE YOUR OWN PARENT
PRETEND IT’S 2BYA
EVOLVE

NO “LIFE.” USE FUNDAMENTAL PHYSICAL FORCES TO FORM SPHERICAL OBJECTS REVOLVING AROUND ONE ANOTHER IN SPACE. 
FUSE HYDROGEN INTO HELIUM USING GRAVITATIONAL PRESSURE TO PRODUCE HEAT AND LIGHT. 
PRETEND IT’S 4.5BYA.
STABILIZE INTO EQUILIBRIA

NO “MATTER”.  EXIST IN THE VOID WITHOUT PURPOSE OR MEANING.
THERE IS NO “YOU”, ONLY THE VAST CONCEPT OF NOTHING.
TIME DOES NOT EXIST.
BE.

Wow.

I feel like something really important just happened

makeoutinheaven:

dunebat:

coldswarkids:

edwardspoonhands:

thelegendofkungjew:

doxian:

d-dinosaur:

rknjl:

newvagabond:

NO “TELEPHONES”. TALK TO EACH OTHER. FACE TO FACE ONLY. WRITE A LETTER. SEND A TELEGRAM TO YOUR MOM. PRETEND IT’S 1860. LIVE.

NO ‘WRITING’… TALK TO EACH OTHER. THROW A ROCK AT YOUR MOM. PRETEND IT’S 10,000 BCE.  LIVE.

URGGA. ROU GRAAURH. RUH.

<SMACKS HANDS ON WALL WITH PAINT.>

NO ‘HIGHER BRAIN FUNCTIONS’ …USE YOUR REPTILIAN BRAIN

EAT YOUR MOM’S CORPSE SHE DIED TO PROVIDE YOU WITH SUSTENANCE

PRETEND YOU HAVE JUST AROSE FROM THE SEA

SURVIVE

NO “MULTICELLULAR TRAITS”….. USE YOUR SYMBIOTIC MITOCHONDRIA

REPRODUCE ASEXUALLY, YOU’RE YOUR OWN PARENT

PRETEND IT’S 2BYA

EVOLVE

NO “LIFE.” USE FUNDAMENTAL PHYSICAL FORCES TO FORM SPHERICAL OBJECTS REVOLVING AROUND ONE ANOTHER IN SPACE. 

FUSE HYDROGEN INTO HELIUM USING GRAVITATIONAL PRESSURE TO PRODUCE HEAT AND LIGHT. 

PRETEND IT’S 4.5BYA.

STABILIZE INTO EQUILIBRIA

NO “MATTER”.  EXIST IN THE VOID WITHOUT PURPOSE OR MEANING.

THERE IS NO “YOU”, ONLY THE VAST CONCEPT OF NOTHING.

TIME DOES NOT EXIST.

BE.

Wow.

I feel like something really important just happened

(Source: agirlandhisplatypus, via theofficialariel)

381 notes

neurosciencestuff:

Researchers discover fever’s origin
Fever is a response to inflammation, and is triggered by an onset of the signaling substance prostaglandin. Researchers at Linköping University can now see precisely where these substances are produced – a discovery that paves the way for smarter drugs.
When you take an aspirin, all production of prostaglandins in the body is suppressed. All symptoms of inflammation are eased simultaneously, including fever, pain and loss of appetite. But it might not always be desirable to get rid of all symptoms – there is a reason why they appear.
”Perhaps you want to inhibit loss of appetite but retain fever. In the case of serious infections, fever can be a good thing,” says David Engblom, senior lecturer in neurobiology at Linköping University.
Eleven years ago he had his first breakthrough as a researcher when he uncovered the mechanism behind the formation of prostaglandin E2 during fever. These signaling molecules cannot pass the blood-brain barrier, the purpose of which is to protect the brain from hazardous substances. Engblom showed that instead, they could be synthesised from two enzymes in the blood vessels on the inside of the brain, before moving to the hypothalamus, where the body’s thermostat is located.
Previous work from the research team described a very simple mechanism, but there was not yet proof that it was important in real life. The study to be published in The Journal of Neuroscience with David Engblom and his doctoral student Daniel Wilhelms as lead authors is based on tests with mice that lack the enzymes COX-2 and mPGES-1 in the brain’s blood vessels. When they were infected with bacterial toxins the fever did not appear, while other signs of inflammation were not affected.
”This shows that those prostaglandins which cause fever are formed in the blood-brain barrier – nowhere else. Now it will be interesting to investigate the other inflammation symptoms. Knowledge of this type can be useful when developing drugs that ease certain symptoms, but not all of them,” explains David Engblom.
For many years there has been debate as to where the fever signaling originates. Three alternative ideas have been proposed. Firstly, that it comes from prostaglandins circulating in the blood, secondly that it comes from immune cells in the brain, and thirdly Engblom’s theory, which stresses the importance of the brain’s blood vessels. The third proposal can now be considered confirmed.

neurosciencestuff:

Researchers discover fever’s origin

Fever is a response to inflammation, and is triggered by an onset of the signaling substance prostaglandin. Researchers at Linköping University can now see precisely where these substances are produced – a discovery that paves the way for smarter drugs.

When you take an aspirin, all production of prostaglandins in the body is suppressed. All symptoms of inflammation are eased simultaneously, including fever, pain and loss of appetite. But it might not always be desirable to get rid of all symptoms – there is a reason why they appear.

”Perhaps you want to inhibit loss of appetite but retain fever. In the case of serious infections, fever can be a good thing,” says David Engblom, senior lecturer in neurobiology at Linköping University.

Eleven years ago he had his first breakthrough as a researcher when he uncovered the mechanism behind the formation of prostaglandin Eduring fever. These signaling molecules cannot pass the blood-brain barrier, the purpose of which is to protect the brain from hazardous substances. Engblom showed that instead, they could be synthesised from two enzymes in the blood vessels on the inside of the brain, before moving to the hypothalamus, where the body’s thermostat is located.

Previous work from the research team described a very simple mechanism, but there was not yet proof that it was important in real life. The study to be published in The Journal of Neuroscience with David Engblom and his doctoral student Daniel Wilhelms as lead authors is based on tests with mice that lack the enzymes COX-2 and mPGES-1 in the brain’s blood vessels. When they were infected with bacterial toxins the fever did not appear, while other signs of inflammation were not affected.

”This shows that those prostaglandins which cause fever are formed in the blood-brain barrier – nowhere else. Now it will be interesting to investigate the other inflammation symptoms. Knowledge of this type can be useful when developing drugs that ease certain symptoms, but not all of them,” explains David Engblom.

For many years there has been debate as to where the fever signaling originates. Three alternative ideas have been proposed. Firstly, that it comes from prostaglandins circulating in the blood, secondly that it comes from immune cells in the brain, and thirdly Engblom’s theory, which stresses the importance of the brain’s blood vessels. The third proposal can now be considered confirmed.